A quantitative analysis of out-of-hospital pediatric and adolescent resuscitation quality--A report from the ROC epistry-cardiac arrest.

Sutton RM, Case E, Brown SP, Atkins DL, Nadkarni VM, Kaltman J, Callaway C, Idris A, Nichol G, Hutchison J, Drennan IR, Austin M, Daya M, Cheskes S, Nuttall J, Herren H, Christenson J, Andrusiek D, Vaillancourt C, Menegazzi JJ, Rea TD, Berg RA; ROC Invest



High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may improve survival. The quality of CPR performed during pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (p-OHCA) is largely unknown. The main objective of this study was to describe the quality of CPR performed during p-OHCA resuscitation attempts.


Prospective observational multi-center cohort study of p-OHCA patients ≥ 1 and < 19 years of age registered in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Epistry database. The primary outcome was an a priori composite variable of compliance with American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for both chest compression (CC) rate and CC fraction (CCF). Event compliance was defined as a case with 60% or more of its minute epochs compliant with AHA targets (rate 100-120 min(-1); depth ≥ 38 mm; and CCF ≥ 0.80). In a secondary analysis, multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between guideline compliance and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).


Between December 2005 and December 2012, 2564 pediatric events were treated by EMS providers, 390 of which were included in the final cohort. Of these events, 22% achieved AHA compliance for both rate and CCF, 36% for rate alone, 53% for CCF alone, and 58% for depth alone. Over time, there was a significant increase in CCF (p < 0.001) and depth (p = 0.03). After controlling for potential confounders, there was no significant association between AHA guideline compliance and ROSC.


In this multi-center study, we have established that there are opportunities for professional rescuers to improve prehospital CPR quality. Encouragingly, CCF and depth both increased significantly over time.